Together, these cases have the strong effect that selective implementation can have. In Canada, China and Argentina, governments and industry groups have faced legal costs that defend themselves against trade claims. They are also held accountable in a considerable context. The governments of Ontario and China have been forced to withdraw green subsidies, which has been a significant loss to the renewable energy sector. Argentine biofuel producers have been forced to pay higher tariffs in all their major export markets, which has made their profits and the whole sector more viable. Growth and official aid to aquaculture have therefore led to cases of trade assistance and disputes within the WTO. In addition to shrimp and salmon, the United States and the European Union have imposed commercial means on Vietnamese catfish, 196 196 Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 Fed. Reg. Reg. 47,909, 47,909 (12, 2003); see also some frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: final results of the New Shipper Review anti-dumping tax; 2014-2015, 81 Fed. Reg. 44.272, 44.273 (7 July 2016) (confirmation, after review, of anti-dumping duties on Vietnamese frozen fishing nets). …
Close Chinese rawfish tails, 197 197 Notice of Amendment to Final Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat from the People`s Republic of China, 62 Fed. Reg. Reg. 48.218, 48,219 (Sept. 10, 1997). … Close Norwegian trout, 198,198 Council Regulations 437/2004 of 8 March 2004 establishing a definitive anti-dumping duty and final collection of the provisional duty on imports of large rainbow trout from Norway and the Faroe Islands, 2004 O.J. (L 72) 23, 38 (EC).
… Narrow and Turkish Trout, 199,199 Commission Enforcement Regulations 1195/2014 of 29 October 2014 introducing a provisional compensatory tax on imports of certain rainbow trout from Turkey, 2014 OJ. (L 319) 1, 29 (EU); See also Eva Tallaksen, Turkish Trout Exporters Could Face 7-10% Anti-Dumping Duties to EU, Undercurrent News (Oct. 15, 2014), www.undercurrentnews.com/2014/10/15/turkish-trout-exporters-could-face-7-10-anti-dumping-duties-to-eu/ (in agreement with the Columbia Law Review) (finding that Turkish trout producers are assessed against tariffs on their rainbow trout after finding that Turkey subsidized them). … Close, among other things. Trade disputes, which focus on wild fish, are remarkably absent. This article is dealt with in five parts. Part I provides a historical report on concerns about the selective application of commercial law.
Governments and scientists have identified different types of selective enforcement and have taken action, including selective enforcement of national environmental and labour legislation 24 24 See Infra-Section I.A.